A View into dilated Time
  1. Abstract

  2. The correctness of Einsteins Special Relativity Theorie with its time dilation effects is widely accepted and proved with a number of experiments. This article indicates, that since now it was overseen, that the radiated light of far distant stars with relative velocities near to the speed of light shows a time dilation effect on the frequency of its light. This effect is superimposing with the Doppler Effect and adds a major part to the observed redshift of the star light, because it acts in every moving direction of the star, whereas the Doppler Effect only acts on the escape velocity, which is the vertical velocity component of the vector of the relative velocity. Due to the fact, that nearly all redshift of the observed star light was misinterpreted as an increase of the vertical velocity, the idea of an expanding universe came up. A redshift, caused by time dilation, allows a model of the universe which is constant and infinite in space and time. This universe is stable due to the fact, that gravitational forces are counteracted by inertial forces. This condition can be fulfilled with constantly growing relative velocities with increasing distances. No conditions for the directions of the velocities are necessary.
  3. Introduction

  4. The following considerations lead to a new explanation for the astronomically observed redshift of very far distant space objects. This redshift of the star light from all space directions is interpreted in a manner that it would be mainly a frequency shift of the light which is caused by the Doppler effect. The conclusion is, that all stars are moving away from us. This assumption is the basis for the presently widely accepted theory for the expansion of the universe, which is based on the assumption of a Big Bang about 15 Billion years ago. Important for this is the Hubble-law, which was set up by the american astronom Hubble, who found, that the velocity between earth and apart moving stars is proportional to the distance.
  5. Fast moving objects

  6. The considerations begin with a simple calculation: The ratio between the departing velocity of an observed object to its distance (Hubble-Constant) is presently estimated to about 50 to 100 kilometers per second per Megaparsec. The diameter of the galaxy is approximately 30,000 Parsec, which is about 100,000 light years. The objects observed at the edge of the universe are about 12 Billion light years away. With the factor 0.3 Parsec per Light year and the Hubble-constant 100 km/s per Megaparsec it follows for the presently observed objects with longest distances an escape velocity relative to earth of up to 300,000 km/s.
    That is the speed of light! We know since Einsteins Special Relativity Theory that for an object which moves relative to us with very high speed, near the speed of light, the time runs slower then for us. The relationship between time shift and velocity is a hyperbolic function, which means, by approaching to the non-achievable limiting value of the speed of light the time elongation in the moving object will continuously grow. If the moved object would be a space ship and we could see the crew of the space ship with a telescope, then we would see the movements of the crew in very slow motion, because we would e. g. see a time span, which was experienced by the crew as a second, within an observation hour.
  7. Time dilation slows down the frequency of radiated light

  8. It is true, that we cann't observe the crew in the space ship; but we can see the radiated light of the very fast moving stars in very far distances. It is widely known, that the speed of light of a star remains constant at 300,000 km/s, whereas it doesn't matter whether the star is approaching with very high speed or it is departing in the opposite direction. Nevertheless we can directly see the dilation of time at the moving object. Due to the fact that we could observe the movements of the crew in the moving object in slow motion, then all other processes at the moving object are also in slow motion. This includes the frequency of oscillations of the light, which we can receive from the moving object!
    The redshift of the observed light of the stars with very long distances is therefore apparently not only caused by the Doppler Effect, but primarily it is the result of the time dilation which is described by the Special Relativity Theory, for objects, which are moving relative to another object. With very high speed, near to the speed of light, this can cause dramatic time differences between both objects. If the presently observed objects with largest distances in space have an escape velocity in the order of magnitude of the speed of light, then it is obvious, that we really reached the border of the observable universe with our recently available super- telescopes. But this doesn't mean, that there are no objects beyond that border. If their relative velocity to us is however even nearer to the ultimate speed of light, then an even stronger time dilation must occur. In the ultimate, theoretical case, objects with the speed of light would radiate light with a wave length which goes against infinity. This light would not be visible any more.
  9. Infinite universe

  10. With this interpretation there are no indications left, that space is expanding or that it is of finite size. There is, like in a mighty wheel mechanism, only a continuous increase of relative velocities, with increasing distance, i. e. small systems are revolving larger systems, which are revolving even larger systems, etc.. The necessity of increased relative velocities between neighbor systems can simply be explained with a hypothetical situation, where large groups of stars or of galaxies with no relative velocities between them, would move on parallel curves. In this case the gravitational forces between the neighbors would not be counteracted by inertial forces. These curves would approach each other and the objects would finally collide.

    (From the observers point of view the difference between the observed velocities might be very small, if both objects move near the speed of light. For the calculation of the inertial forces between these objects we have to consider the difference in relativistic momentum, predicted by the Special Relativity Theory,
    see  http://weber.u.washington.edu/~gdaly/CH28FLDR/Pages/Momentum.htm  )

    The effect of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, with micro wave radiation in the low temperature region coming from all directions of space, was discovered 1965. This effect is presently regarded as a residual radiation from the Big Bang and it is therefore accepted as an evidence for this theory. But it can also be interpreted with the above explanation. Galaxies, which are moving beyond the visible universe, should have relative velocities, as near to the speed of light, that their radiated light cannot be seen anymore by us as visible light. Due to the time dilation we measure the electromagnetic waves of this light in a frequency range far below the visible light. By measuring objects with the long wave infrared light, which is not visible with the eyes, we may frequently see these objects. The above mentioned measurements of a diffusive background radiation, which value corresponds to a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin, are apparently showing the last stage of the received light of galaxies in extremely long distances. The reason, that with these microwaves single objects can not be localized any more, is, that with increasing distance the resolution of the telescope must grow, to get a sufficient focused picture with the tiny points and a large number of objects. With increasing distances the growing number of objects in the view angle can therefore not be separated any more. With radio telescopes this is even more difficult, because the telescope diameter must increase with the wave lengths of the observed radio signals, to keep the resolution constant.

  11. Unknown data

  12. The attentive reader will not have missed the fact, that at the beginning of this article the arguments were made with escape velocities, which are basing on the assumption, that the Doppler-Effect is mainly responsible for the observed increasing redshift of the light of far distant objects in space. The calculation of the Hubble-Constant was based on this assumption. But if the redshift is mainly caused by the time dilation on the moving object, then of course relativistic considerations are required to compute the relative velocities from the observed redshifts. This will lead to altered velocity data.
    Probably there will be no single clear solution, due to the fact, that the Doppler Effect is superimposing with the relativistic effect. With the assumption of an expanding universe it acts and with the assumption of a static universe, the average effect of frequency shifts to lower and higher light frequencies, caused by the Doppler Effect, goes against zero. As a mean result, only the relativistic red shift, with increasing distance, remains.
    With the assumption of redshift by the Doppler Effect, the escape velocity can be directly calculated with the measured frequency of the light. This value is compared to the reference light of well known nearer objects, like type 1a supernovae, which were recently studied (see http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/282/5397/2156a), and the frequency shift is a measure for the assumed escape velocity. The escape- or approaching velocity is one component of the vector of the relative velocity. It is called the vertical velocity component. The other components are the tangential velocity and the direction of the vector. The redshift by time dilation is however resulting from the absolute value of the velocity vector, relative to the observer. The component of the tangential velocity of very far distant objects is however not directly measurable and consequently unknown. With consideration of the time dilation the ratios between vertical- and the tangential velocities are therefore unknown. Consequently it is not possible to compute one of these two values directly. But there should be a possibility with the data of investigations of the redshift of type 1a supernovae. By comparison of the time dilation of their light curves it is possible to calculate the time dilation effect separately [1]. Then the remaining red shift by Doppler Effect can be computed, together with the two velocity components.
    Due to this fact, it also follows, that the presently assumed distances of the objects are not correct. While the distances of near stars in our galaxy can be measured directly with Parallactic Shift, the measurements of long distances in space bases on the comparison of the weaker brightness of far distant objects to apparently equal or very similar objects in our galaxy, with known distances. A distant, fast moving object, whose radiated light frequency can be seen by us, due to time dilation, only in 'slow motion', will send its light particles, the 'photons', only with lower frequency! Thus their brightness, which we can measure, will therefore be clearly reduced, i. e. these objects are in reality nearer as it is assumed.
  13. Conclusion

  14. With the assumption of the mainly acting Doppler Effect, as well as with taking the time dilation into account on the observed redshift in both cases, the conclusion is drawn, that the relative velocities are increasing with growing distance and they reach the order of magnitude of the speed of light at the edge of the visible universe. But from redshift by time dilation on the moving object follows no statement about the direction of the movement. Thus follows no conclusion, that the moving objects must depart from earth and there can be no conclusions drawn out of the observations about size and age of the universe.
    The above explanation puts new light to a lot of old and new questions. Examples:
    Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers formulated the following question in the early 19. Century: Why is the sky not bright in the night? If there are an infinite number of stars in infinity distance, then the sky should be filled with surfaces of shining stars. - The answer with the interpretation of this article is: Yes, the sky is filled, but with the time dilated light wave lengths of stars beyond the range of the visible universe. The frequency of their light is shifted down to microwave wave lengths. This observation is known as 'Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation'. The observed brightness drops down constantly with increasing wavelengths in a log/log plot (see http://cfpa.berkeley.edu/darkmat/cmbspectrum.bif). This plot includes the possibility of objects which have even longer distances with relative velocities which are so near to the speed of light, that their radiation is extremely weak with longer wave lengths.
    Recent investigations of far distant type 1a supernovae have resurrect the old concept of Einstein of a Cosmological Constant. The result of the work of several research groups, equipped with newly erected super-telescopes, was, that the expansion velocity of the universe is steadily increasing even in very far distances. This finding contradicts the idea, that after the Big Bang, gravitational forces should decelerate the expansion in the outer region of the universe. The question is: What is the nature of this magic Cosmological Constant? - With the arguments of this article, there is no evidence left, that the universe really expands and that we know its age and size. The basic assumption of this article is, that only the relative velocities are increasing with distances in the universe, but the main components of these velocities do not have to be vertical, relative to us. This steady increase of relative velocities with increasing length scales ensures, that the universe will not collapse in regions, where the inertial forces could not counteract the gravitational forces.
  15. References
B. Leibundgut et. al., 1996, ApJL, 466, L21-L24 [16 authors]